There are also limitations to services that managed care will cover. The fee-for-service system has been difficult to overcome. Inherent in a fee-for-service system is that some people will be able to afford the fee but others will not. As Marmor notes, "In comparison with other industrial democracies, Americans are less insured for the costs of health care, and the care we receive is costlier.
Yet, serious reform of American medicine has been enormously difficult to achieve and comprehensive reform impossible" Marmor, , p. According to Skeen , one of the biggest problems of the pre-ACA system is the high rate of fraud. He blames this squarely on the structure of the fee-for-service system.
Physicians and other providers are allowed to bill for their services but the ways they code label and categorize these services are up to them. So, some providers are accused of padding the bill by changing a patient's diagnosis to something far more serious and order tests or say they have ordered tests for which they're also able to bill. Another part of the fraud and abuse problem surely lies with the insurance industry with its built-in, relatively low risk to increase costs.
Skeen explains that private insurance companies also contribute to the problem. Though insurance companies would prefer to avoid the uncertainty that rising prices create, they have generally been able to pass along the costs to their subscribers, and their profits increase with the total volume of expenditures Skeen, , p. Under managed care it is no longer the case that insurers pay all or some percentage of the usual and customary fees for a service as is done in retrospective sometimes called "fee for service" systems.
More likely they pit providers against one another to see who will bid the lowest prices for an acceptable level of service Lawlor, , p. While one can easily become cynical over the state of American health care, it is important to present a balanced picture.
Prior to the Affordable Care Act of , there have been notable efforts to try and change or reform the system. During his two-term presidency — , former president Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary Rodham Clinton worked to bring universal health care to the United States.
Even before this, there were significant attempts to try and reform the system. During the first two decades of the twentieth century, labor unions attempted to reform the American health care. Since there was no requirement for employers to provide health care to their workers, workers would lose wages if they missed work due to illness and would have to pay for medical care out of pocket.
This dual problem often left workers with huge debts. According to Hoffman , "In , progressive reformers proposed a system of compulsory health insurance to protect workers against both wage loss and medical costs during sickness" p. Schreiner previously worked for a London-based freelance firm. Her work appears on eHow, Trails. She currently teaches writing to middle school students in Ohio and works on her writing craft regularly.
The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. Universal Health Care Universal health Care is a continually debated issue. Mandated Reporting People who work in the health care industry are mandated reporters, meaning they are legally obligated to report suspected cases of child abuse and neglect.
Nurse Education Nursing shortages occur frequently within the health care industry. House Calls House calls were once common practice in the medical field but are now a rarity. Health Care Cost Reduction The cost of health care is often astronomical. Triage Procedures When patients enter a hospital, triage procedures are commonly used to determine the urgency of the patient's condition. References Northwest Missouri State University: Photo Credits tablest image by Zbigniew Nowak from Fotolia.
Accessed 14 September Health Care Research Paper Topics. Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Topics for Fourth-Grade Research Papers. Types of Health Care Management Theories. A mixture of public programs and private programs is common among nations that essentially cover all residents, but the American system is unique — and often uniquely inefficient in economic terms.
Other factors in the inefficiency of the American health care system are not specifically related to the nature of the medical business. American medical professionals, doctors in particular, earn larger salaries than medical professionals in other countries. The profit levels for American pharmaceutical companies and insurance companies are high by international standards.
Most developed, nations have universal health care systems that are more cost-efficient per capita than the patchwork American system Singer, Per capita spending in the United States is twice that of France and more than twice that of Britain, and yet key indicators such as infant mortality and life expectancy are significantly worse. Spending on private care is very high, as is spending on emergency room procedures.
Emergency rooms are obligated by law to provide life-saving care, and then the hospital in question can attempt to bill uninsured patients. Most advanced health care systems also use an extensive form of rationing. In the United States, rationing primarily takes on the economic form of administrative managed care or "explicit rationing" through private employer-based programs, whereas other developed nations often use a physician-based form or "implicit rationing" based on pressing medical necessity.
Germany and Japan offer a form of health care through employers, but everyone is covered; cost and quality in those nations are also increasingly strained LaFrance, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, This figure is expected to rise to 20 percent by the year Wayne, The average rate for developed, capitalist countries is under 12 percent of the GDP.
In the s, that figure was 5. Since , the rate of citizens covered by employer-based health insurance has fallen from about 70 percent to about 55 percent in , and premiums have been increasing rapidly for both employers and employees — as have the deductibles for policy holders. The number of the uninsured individuals in the United States in was approximately 48 million people, or about 15 percent of the population. Forty-two percent of workers who earn minimum wage receive health-care benefits, in contrast with about 90 percent of workers making three times the minimum wage or more LaFrance, The average age of the uninsured worker is 31, and the average age of the insured worker is The uninsured are more likely to be minorities, single, little-educated, or self-employed or employed by a small company; they are also less likely to have regular check-ups, vaccinations, annual physicals, and preventative cancer tests than the insured Blakely, Of the uninsured in , Among adults aged eighteen to sixty-four,
Regardless of your age or fitness level, you are eventually going to need the services of an individual within the health care industry. There are numerous topics .
A List Of Health Care Topics For Research Paper To Get A Good Mark. If you are writing a health care paper and are in need of good health care topics for research papers that will get you a good mark, try some of these.
Research within librarian-selected research topics on Health Care from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and . How do you choose a health topic for a research paper when there are so many options? We've got 10 great ideas to get you started. 10 Writing Ideas Concerning Health Share Flipboard Email Print For Adult Learners. Tips for Adult Students Understanding the Obama Health Care Plan;.
23 Strong Topic Suggestions For A Research Paper On Health Economics. The health condition of a nation affects its economy, so it’s no wonder that this issue is constantly in the focus of attention of both students and professors. Health Care Administrator Research Paper Topic Suggestions. Administrator of Orthopedic Surgery Practice - Administrator of Orthopedic Surgery Practice research papers look at an example of an order placed on the issues and questions that an administrator must consider.. Affordable Health Care Act - Affordable Health Care Act research papers .