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People are motivated to actually do the proofs-of-work since when they discover a valid set of transactions, the protocol allows them to invent 50 coins for themselves. The computing power applied to the problem is nontrivial: But this is a supercomputer which is devoted solely to calculating some numbers which satisfy a completely arbitrary criteria.

Yes, it works - Bitcoin is still around and growing. This way we get a secure Bitcoin because no one can afford to compute multiple solutions and we also put the computing power to use. With centralized systems, we could do other things like implement micropayments for BitTorrent eg. Nor are alternate blockchains are not an impossible idea. The Namecoin network is up and running with another blockchain, specialized for registering and paying for domain names.

In effect, they are paying for their visit with their computational power. JavaScript is not the best language in which to write tight loops and even if browser JavaScript were up to snuff, CPU mining in general is extremely inefficient compared to GPU mining. Bitcoin Plus works because the costs of electricity and computers is externalized to the visitors. Reportedly, CPU mining is no longer able to even pay for the cost of the electricity involved, so Bitcoin Plus would be an example of negative externalities.

A good Artcoin scheme should be Pareto-improving. One issue that pops up is how do you input the specific real-world problem into the Artcoin network so everyone can start competing to solve it?

Perhaps there could be some central authority with a public key that signs each specific problem; everyone downloads it, checks that the signature is indeed valid, and can start trying to solve it. No one needs a new centralized electronic currency: If there was such a central authority in Artcoin, no one would use it! And they would be right to not use it. One little noted property about NP problems is that the exponential blowup in difficulty refers to worst-case problems: If we had some magical way of estimating the difficulty of an arbitrary NP problem, we could devise a hybrid scheme: Any central authority attempting to water down the proof-of-work security would just see his signed problems ignored in favor of the old inefficient scheme, and so would have no incentive to release non-real-world problems even if a third party like a government attempted to coerce them.

A more P2P scheme would be to have clients simply verify any solution for a set of transactions, and let anyone supply problems so users can pick which problems they work on.

But this would seem to run into the same problem as before: If we had some way of estimating, we could implement this P2P scheme as well: How could we measure difficulty? Obviously you could measure difficulty by trying to solve the problem yourself: But what good would this do you?

You could broadcast a message to all your peers saying these problems are supposed to take at least seconds to compute, but this only took seconds! Does this magical way of estimating difficulty exist? A randomly-generated problem can be inspected and predicted with substantial accuracy how difficult it will be: SAT-satisfiability prediction is a good step, but still incomplete: The Nazis believed many sane things, like exercise and the value of nature and animal welfare and the harmful nature of smoking.

Do men or women live longer? But maybe what we are really interested in is whether women have longer effective lives: To take the Japanese numbers, women may live 8. But notice how much we had to assume to bring the female numbers down to male: I had not realized how much of a lifetime those extra years represented: The obvious criticism is that social expectations that women appear as attractive as possible will use up a lot of women time.

This random guess may understate the impact; the pill aside, menstruation reportedly can be pretty awful. Pregnancy and raising children is a possible way to even things out. So the overwhelming majority of women will at some point bear the burden of at least 1 pregnancy. So at least as far as this goes, your treatment of childbearing will determine whether the longevity advantage is simply a fair repayment, as it were, for childbearing and rearing, or whether it really is a gift to the distaff side.

But I really know very little about how news from China gets to me, and it is filtered through a lot more layers than when I read about things of local interest. It is dangerous to judge a very large and complex country with truly formidable barriers to understanding and internal opacity.

As best as I can judge the numbers and facts presented for myself, there are things rotten in Denmark. The question is whether they are rotten enough.

This dissonance, and my own susceptibility to the authors I had read, was not lost on me. Have you ever tried to change the oil in your car? Or stared perplexed at a computer error for hours, only for a geek to resolve it in a few keystrokes? Or tried to do yardwork with the wrong tool? Bare hands rather than a shovel; a shovel rather than a rake, etc.

So much depends on the right tool or the right approach. Think of a man lost in a desert. The right direction is such a trivial small bit of knowledge, almost too small a thing to even be called data. But it means the entire world to that man - the entire world.

So much depends on little pieces of metal being 0. Think of the insides of a jet engine, of thousands of planes and even more tens of thousands of people not falling screaming out of the sky.

Williams is sharing with us, in true Imagist style, a sudden realization, an epiphany in a previously mundane image. Here is a farm. It seems robust and eternal and sturdy. Nothing about this neglected wheelbarrow, glazed with rain and noticed only by fowl, draws our attention - until we suddenly realize how fragile everything is, how much everything has to go right I sometimes have this feeling on the highway.

How can I possibly still be alive after all these trips? An entire estimation subreddit is devoted to working through questions like these it can be quite fun , and of course, there are the memorable what if?

Risk management and sounding crazy. If Sino Forestry was really causing 17m cubic meters of wood to be processed a year, where was all the processing? This simple question tells us a lot. With medicine, there is one simple question one can always ask too - where is the increased longevity? This is an important question to ask of studies, such as a recent caloric restriction study.

Dominique Strauss-Khan , while freed of the charge of rape, stands convicted in the court of public opinion as an immoral philanderer; after all, even by his account he cheated on his wife with the hotel maid, and he has been accused in France by a writer of raping her; where there is smoke there is fire, so Khan has probably slept with quite a few women This is as people expect - politicians sleep around and are immoral. To be a top politician, one must be an risk-taking alpha male reeking of testosterone, to fuel status-seeking behavior.

Toward the end of my two-week [testosterone injection] cycle, I can almost feel my spirits dragging. If you lose a contest with prey or a rival, it makes sense not to pick another fight immediately. So your body wisely prompts you to withdraw, filling your brain with depression and self-doubt.

But if you have made a successful kill or defeated a treacherous enemy, your hormones goad you into further conquest. And people wonder why professional football players get into postgame sexual escapades and violence.

Or why successful businessmen and politicians often push their sexual luck. Power corrupts, unconsciously, leading to abuse of power and an inevitable fall - the paradox of power. Such conventional wisdom almost dares examination. Politicians being immoral and sleeping around is a truism - people in general are immoral and sleep around. But is this true? Consider how many national-level politicians there are that could earn coverage with their infidelities: If those were merely ordinary, what would we expect?

So we might expect of the current set of national politicians to be unfaithful eventually! Who went down as scheduled in September or August ? Why does it feel the opposite way, though? And is very low an estimate. After all, everyone lives somewhere. We could plausibly double or triple this figure. I had not heard of many politicians involved in sex scandals - like Khan, come to think of it - so they do not even need to be famous. So we have noticed that there are too few sex scandals in politics; the same reasoning seems to work for ordinary crimes like murder - there are too few!

Self-discipline seems like an obvious key. A reputation is built over decades, and can be destroyed in one instant. Maybe the truth is more sinister: And we need a cover-up which actually reduces the number of scandals going public to make this all go away and leave our prejudices alone.

To some extent, we see delays. For example, we seem to now know a lot about John F. This suggests a way to distinguish the permanent cover-up from the delayed cover-up theory: Take every major politician from, say , and check into their affairs; how many were then known to have affairs? How many were revealed to have affairs decades later?

One could probably even automate this. The shadow rate is interesting since the mass media audience finds sex scandals interesting to a nauseating degree. Why does the media spend so much time on something like Weiner? The shadow rate ought to be negative if anything: Any positive shadow rate shows something very interesting: The word but is pretty interesting.

Most arguments proceed by repeated modus ponens; this implies that which implies the other , and this is in fact the case, so you must agree with me about the other. I thought, and I think we could formalize but as a probabilistic modus tollens. My conclusion is always less reliable than my premises because probability intervenes at every step: So, when we argue by repeated modus ponens, what we are actually saying although we pretend to be using good old syllogisms and deductive logic is something more like: A implies B; probably A; therefore less probably B.

When someone replies with But C! They are setting up an unstated parallel chain of arguments. Imagine a physicist discussing FTL neutrinos; this observation therefore that belief therefore this conclusion that the neutrinos arrived faster than light. And someone speaks up, saying But there was no burst of neutrinos before we saw light from that recent supernova!

What is going on here is the audience is weighing the probabilities of two premises, which then work backwards to the causal chains. Try to explain it without but. I exaggerate a little here; nevertheless, I think this shows but is a little more complex and sophisticated than one would initially suspect.

And then there is ethical utilitarianism, usually act utilitarianism Most have programming experience, or have read a good deal about logic and math and computers.

Romain gives the stereotypical image:. Cryonics is a particularly American social practice, created and taken up by a particular type of American: Lemler also told me that cryonicists tend to have very strong Libertarian political views, believing in the rights of the individual and the power of the free market, although Lemler himself is a self-proclaimed bleeding heart Liberal.

Lemler also said that cryonicists are highly adventurous, although he added, You may not see that in their current lives. In fact, we have the bookish types, if you will, as I just described. The majority of cryonicists I met were, indeed, software or mechanical engineers. But I also encountered venture capitalists, traders, homemakers, a shaman, a journalist, a university professor, cryobiologists, an insurance broker, artificial intelligence designers, a musician, men, women, children, people of color, people in perfect health, and people who were terminally ill.

Nevertheless, a sort of Weberian ideal type Weber [] of the typical cryonicist has emerged, and this is how cryonicists recognize themselves and one another. Another member shouted out, And a Libertarian! Perhaps more intriguingly, when libertarians reacted to moral dilemmas and in other tests, they displayed less emotion, less empathy and less disgust than either conservatives or liberals. They appeared to use cold calculation to reach utilitarian conclusions about whether for instance to save lives by sacrificing fewer lives.

They reached correct, rather than intuitive, answers to math and logic problems, and they enjoyed effortful and thoughtful cognitive tasks more than others do. The researchers found that libertarians had the most masculine psychological profile, while liberals had the most feminine, and these results held up even when they examined each gender separately, which may explain why libertarianism appeals to men more than women. This clustering could be due solely to social networks and whatnot.

The authors of this article know of a number of high profile cryonicists who need to hide their cryonics activities from their wives and ex-high profile cryonicists who had to choose between cryonics and their relationship. We also know of men who would like to make cryonics arrangements but have not been able to do so because of resistance from their wives or girlfriends. In such cases, the female partner can be described as nothing less than hostile toward cryonics.

While it is not unusual for any two people to have differing points of view regarding cryonics, men are more interested in making cryonics arrangements. A recent membership update from the Alcor Life Extension Foundation reports that males and females have made cryonics arrangements. Although no formal data are available, it is common knowledge that a substantial number of these female cryonicists signed up after being persuaded by their husbands or boyfriends.

For whatever reason, males are more interested in cryonics than females. These issues raise an obvious question: This list see appendix is restricted to situations where Darwin had direct knowledge of the conflict and was an Officer, Director or employee of the cryonics organization under whose auspices the incident took place.

This log spans the years to , an 8 year period…The 91 people listed in this table include 3 whose deaths are directly attributable to hostility or active intervention on the part of women.

Nor does it reflect the doubtless many more cases where we had no idea…. When the partner with cryonics arrangements dies, life insurance and inheritance funds will go to the cryonics organization instead of to the partner or their children. Some nasty battles have been fought over the inheritance of cryonics patients, including attempts of family members to delay informing the cryonics organization that the member had died, if an attempt was made at all 5.

The concern that emerges from such discussion is that if cryonics is successful for the husband, he will not only resume living, he may well do so for a vast period of time during which he can reasonably be expected to form romantic attachments to other women, engage in purely sexual relationships or have sexual encounters with other women, or even marry another woman or women , father children with them and start a new family.

This prospect evokes obvious insecurity, jealousy and a nearly universal expression on the part of the wives that such a situation is unfair, wrong and unnatural. Interestingly, a few women who are neither religious nor believers in a metaphysical afterlife have voiced the same concerns.

As La Rochefoucauld famously said, with a different meaning in mind, Jealousy is always born with love, but does not always die with it. This is by no means a theoretical fear because this has happened a number of times over the years in cryonics. Perhaps the first and most publicly acknowledged instance of this was the divorce of Fred Chamberlain from his wife and separation from his two children and the break-up of the long-term relationship between Linda McClintock nee Linda Chamberlain and her long-time significant other as a result of Fred and Linda working together on a committee to organize the Third National Conference On Cryonics sponsored the Cryonics Society of California.

For many cryonicists, having children is considered an unnecessary diversion of resources that can and should be devoted to the self, especially if one is to achieve immortality. He did not see much value in passing on genes or creating new generations and preferred to work toward a world in which people no longer need to procreate since the extension of human lifespans would maintain the human species.

Indeed, I have heard some in the community theorize that having children is an evolutionary byproduct that could very well become vestigial as humans come closer and closer to becoming immortal. I have also heard several lay theories within the cryonics community about genetic or brain structure differences between men and women that cause men to favor life-extension philosophies and women to favor procreation and the conservative maintenance of cultural traditions…In a very different example, Allison wanted to have children but decided that she will wait until post-reanimation because she was single and in her mids and thus approaching age-related infertility medicine of the future would also reverse loss of fertility, she assumed.

When I suggested that she might freeze her eggs so that she could possibly have genetically related children later in life, she responded that she has too much work to accomplish in the immediate future and would rather wait until she came back to experience parenthood. Eliezer Yudkowsky, remarking on the number of women in one cryonics gathering, inadvertently demonstrates that the gender disparity is still large:. This conference was just young people who took the action of signing up for cryonics, and who were willing to spend a couple of paid days in Florida meeting older cryonicists.

I did sometimes hear my husband persuaded me to sign up , but no more frequently than I persuaded my husband to sign up. None of the younger cryonicists showed any sign of it. Well, as a woman, I do have the exact same gut reaction [to cryonics]. I am a hospice social worker. I work with people who are dying all the time. I see people dying All. From its inception in , they write, cryonics has been known to frequently produce intense hostility from spouses who are not cryonicists.

The opposition of romantic partners, Aschwin told me last year, is something that everyone involved in cryonics knows about but that he and Chana, his wife, find difficult to understand. To someone who believes that low-temperature preservation offers a legitimate chance at extending life, obstructionism can seem as willfully cruel as withholding medical treatment. Would-be cryonicists forced to give it all up, the de Wolfs and Federowicz write, face certain death.

The ratio of men to women among living cyronicists is roughly three to one. She thinks the whole idea is sick, twisted and generally spooky, wrote one man newly acquainted with the hostile-wife phenomenon.

She is more intelligent than me, insatiably curious and lovingly devoted to me and our 2-year-old daughter. So why is this happening? To spend a family fortune in the quest to defeat cancer is not taken, in the American context, to be an act of selfishness. Those who seek immortality are plotting an act of leaving, an act, as Robin puts it, of betrayal and abandonment. As the spouse of someone who is planning on undergoing cryogenic preservation, I found this article to be relevant to my interests!

My first reactions when the topic of cryonics came up early in our relationship were shock, a bit of revulsion, and a lot of confusion. Like Peggy I believe , I also felt a bit of disdain. The idea seemed icky, childish, outlandish, and self-aggrandizing. But I was deeply in love, and very interested in finding common ground with my then-boyfriend now spouse. We talked, and talked, and argued, and talked some more, and then I went off and thought very hard about the whole thing…Ultimately, my struggle to come to terms with his decision has been more or less successful.

If he dies before I do, I will do everything in my power to see that his wishes are complied with, as I expect him to see that mine are. To add a data point, I found myself, to put it strongly, literally losing the will to live recently: I think my brain stopped saying live! To the extent that I now get orders of magnitude more panicked about anything happening to my reproductive system than dying after future children reach adulthood. What follows below is the patchwork I have stitched together of the true female objections to a mate undergoing cryonic suspension.

It would evolutionarily be in her best interest to pull as many emotional and physical levers to bend as much of his energies toward her and their offspring as she can get away with and less away from himself. That would translate as a feeling of revulsion toward cryonics that is visceral but which she dares not state directly to avoid alerting her mate to her true nature.

So why not just insist she join him in cryonic suspension? Many of these same wives and girlfriends hate their life even when they are succeeding.

Everyone is familiar with the endless complaints, tears, and heartache that make up the vast majority of the female experience stemming from frustration of her hypergamous instinct to be the princess she had always hoped to be and from resentment of his male nature, hopes, dreams, and aspirations.

He never took me anywhere! We live in a dump! His hobbies are a waste of time and money! My mother always told me I can do better, and his mother will never stop criticizing me! I am fat, ugly, unsuccessful, old, tired, and weary of my responsibilities, idiosyncrasies, insecurities, fears, and pain.

My life sucked but at least it could MEAN something to those most important to me. But if they are around for too long it shrinks in importance over time. She wants you to die forever because she hates what you are. She wants to die too, because she hates what she is. She wants us all to die because she hates what the world is and has meant to her. Indeed, I buy the one way ticket away from here explanation. If I bought a one-way ticket to France, and was intent on going whether my wife wanted to come with me or not, then there would be reason for her to be miffed.

But that is not the answer the cryonicist gives to his hostile wife. Mating in mammals has a basic asymmetry - females must invest more in each child than males. This can lead to an equilibrium where males focus on impressing and having sex with as many females as possible, while females do most of the child-rearing and choose impressive males. Women betray bonds more by temporarily having fertile sex with other men, while men betray bonds more by directing resources more permanently to other women.

So when farmer husbands and wives watch for signs of betrayal, they watch for different things. Husbands watch wives more for signs of a temporary inclination toward short-term mating with other men, while wives watch husbands more for signs of an inclination to shift toward a long-term resource-giving bond with other women.

This asymmetric watching for signs of betrayal produces asymmetric pressures on appearances. While a man can be more straight-forward and honest with himself and others about his inclinations toward short-term sex, he should be more careful with the signs he shows about his inclinations toward long term attachments with women. Similarly, while a woman can be more straight-forward and honest with herself and others about her inclinations toward long-term attachments with men, she should be more careful with the signs she shows about her inclinations toward short term sex with men.

The selfishness of cryonics does seem to be an issue for women and many men; one might wonder, would other heroic medical procedures be more socially acceptable if they involved other-directedness?

I suggest the answer is yes: In the media coverage I have read of those 3 practices, I have the impression that people see them as legitimate medical procedures albeit ones where the cost-benefit equation may not work out.

Cryonicists, on the other hand, are just nuts. The previously listed systems of thought , as it were, all seem to share a common trait: Any higher-level entity is not an ontological atom, and those higher-level illusions can be manipulated in principle nigh-arbitrarily given sufficient information. That the higher-level entities really are nothing but the atomic units interacting is the fundamental pons asinorum of these ideologies, and the one that nonbelievers have not crossed.

In all, there is incredulity at sheer numbers. An ordinary person can accept a few layers since that is what they are used to - a car is made of a few dozen systems with a few discrete thousand parts, a dinner is made of 3 or 4 dishes with no more than a dozen ingredients, etc. The ordinary mind quails at systems with millions of components number of generations evolution can act on , much less billions length of programs, number of processor cycles in a second or trillions number of cells in human body, number of bits on consumer hard drives.

A programmer will have a hard time being knowledgeable about programming and debugging, and also not appreciative of reductionism in his bones. Religious belief seems to correlate and causate with quick intuitive thinking and deontological judgments as well , and what is more counterintuitive than reductionism?

The only other potential counterexample I can think of would be engineers and terrorism, and that is a relatively small and rare correlation. In developing my custom search engine for finding sources for Wikipedia articles, one of its chief benefits turned out to nothing other than filtering out mirrors of Wikipedia! Since one is usually working on an existing article, that means there may be hundreds or thousands of copies of the article floating around the Internet, all of which match very well the search term one is using, but which contribute nothing.

This cost is not borne by the copier, who may be making quite a bit of money on their Wikipedia mirror, even penalized by Google as they have since become. In other words, cluttering up searches is a negative externality. One could say the same thing of the many mirrors or variant versions of social news sites like Hacker News. Who are they imposing costs upon unilaterally?

Domain-squatters are another nuisance; so often I have gone to an old URL and found nothing but a parking domain, with maybe the URL plugged into a Google search underneath a sea of random ads. But, the libertarian objects, clearly these domain-squatters are providing a service since otherwise there would be no advertising revenue and the domain-squatters could not afford to annually renew the domain, much less turn a profit.

On parking domains, only 1 person out of thousands is going to click on an ad at best , find something useful to them, and make the ads a paying proposition. A simple domain-not-found error would have been faster by a second at least, and less mental effort. The wasted time, the cost to those thousands, is not borne by the domain-squatter, the ad-clicker, or the advertiser. They are externalizing the costs of their existing.

Imagine that all clouds had really long strings hanging from them - strings hundreds of feet long. What would be the implications of that fact for nature and society? To make the obvious point: And ropes are heavy. If we insist on the string language ad the implication that the strings are weak and thin, we can take some sort of arachnid tack , which would be either creepy or awesome.

A cloud with a rope dangling is an awful lot like a balloon or lighter-than-air vehicles in general. How do they work? Usually by using hot air, or with a intrinsically lighter gas like helium or hydrogen. Both need good seals, though, which is something a biological organism can do.

But where is an organism going to get enough heat to be a living hot air balloon? So maybe it uses helium instead, but then, where does it get helium? Even better, the organisms creating this hydrogen to obtain flight could reuse the hydrogen for energy - just burn with oxygen!

Trees grow so big and engage in chemical warfare just to get access to the sun, but our hydrogen sacs soar over the groundlings. There might be a similar competition, but the sacs have their own problems: As well, if our sacs are photosynthetic, they need inputs: Which actually explains where our ropes are coming from: How could such a lifeform evolve? I have no idea. There are animals which glide eg. And there are serious issues with the hydrogen sacs: Rise and repeat for millions of years to obtain something which is free-floating and has shed much of its old tree-form for a new spherical shape.

Imagine that a plant or animal did so evolve, and evolved before humanity did. Millions of floating creatures around the world, each one with lifting capacity of a few pounds; or since they could probably grow very large without the same engineering limitations as trees, perhaps hundreds to thousands of pounds. When humanity gets a clue, they will seize on the sacs without hesitation! Horses changed history, and the sacs are better than horses.

The sacs are mobile over land and sea, hang indefinitely, allow aerial assaults, and would be common. More troubling, early states had major difficulties maintaining control. When you read about ancient Egypt or China or Rome, again and again one encounters barbarians or nomads invading or conquering entirely the state, and how they were, man for man, superior to the soldiers of the government. Relatively modest technical innovations meant that when the Mongols got their act together and refined their strategy, they conquered most of the world.

History is shot through with contingency and luck. That China did not have an Industrial Revolution and oddball England did is a matter to give us pause. What happens when we give nomadic humans, in the un-organized part of history, a creature unparalleled in mobility?

At the very least, I think we can expect any static agriculture-based empire the Indus, Yang-tze, Nile to be strangled in its cradle. Without states, history would be completely different with few recognizable entities except perhaps ethnicities.

The English state seemed closely involved in the Industrial Revolution funding the Age of Exploration, patents, etc. No state, no Revolution? But optimistically, could we expect something else to arise - so that the sac variant of human history not be one damn thing after another, happy savages until a pandemic or asteroid finally blots out the human world?

Recycling ropes from dead sacs, we could bind together hundreds of sacs and suspend buildings from them. I say suspend because to put them on top of the sac-structure would cut off the light that the sacs need and might also be unstable as well. A traveling village would naturally be a trading village - living in the air is dangerous, so I suspect there will always be villages planted firmly on the ground even if they keep a herd of sacs of their own.

This increased mobility and trade might spark a global economy of its own. I failed to mention earlier that the sacs, besides being a potent tool of mobility exceeding horses, could also constitute a weapon of their own: Hydrogen burns very well. If nothing else, it makes arson and torching a target very handy. Could sacs be weaponized? Could a nomad take a sac, poke a spigot into it, light a match and turn the sac into a rocket with a fiery payload on impact?

If they can be, then things look very dim indeed for states. But on the flip side, hydrogen burns hot and oxyhydrogen was one of the first mixtures for welding. Our nomads will be able to easily melt and weld tough metals like iron. I leave the thought exercise at this point, having overseen the labefaction of the existing world order and pointed at a potential iron-using airborne anarchy. Which of the two is a better world, I leave to the unknowable unfolding of the future.

There is nothing more animal-like than a clear conscience on the third planet of the Sun. Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: When I or another utilitarian point out eg. This is quite true. This is a fact about how the world works. Fundamentally, if to give a little helps, then for non-billionaires, giving a lot helps more, and given even more helps even more.

What a dull point to make. But the reaction to this dull point is interesting. Apparently for many people, this shows that utilitarianism is not correct! It seems that people intuitively think that the true ethical theory will not be too demanding. This is rather odd. So convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable Creature, since it enables one to find or make a Reason for every thing one has a mind to do. A few criteria are common in meta-ethics, that the One True Ethics should satisfy.

Like physics, the rules should stay the same, even if different input means different output. It ought to cover all actions and inactions, if only to classify it as morally neutral. It would be odd if one were pondering the morality of something and asked, only to be told in a very Buddhist way, that the action was: For example, could one base a satisfactory ethical theory on the Ten Commandments and nothing else?

If all one had to do was be moral was to not violate a commandment? That would be not that hard, but I suspect, as we watch our neighbors fornicate with their goats and sheep, we will suspect that it is immoral even though nowhere in the Ten Commandments did God forbid bestiality - or many other things, for that matter, like child molestation.

You see two strangers drowning and can save only one; your ethical theory says you can randomly pick, because saving either stranger is equally good.

That seems fine to me, even though your ethics did not give you just one moral option, but two. Given that every person faces, at every moment, a mindboggling number of possible actions and inactions, even an ethics which permitted thousands of moral actions in a given circumstance is ruling out countless more. Considering this, it would not be a surprise if people frequently chose immoral or amoral actions: So there is a lot of room for improvement.

If this were true of ethics, that would only mean ethics is like every other field of human endeavour in having an ideal that is beyond attainment - no doctor never makes a mistake, no chess player never overlooks an easy checkmate, no artist never messes up a drawing, and so on. There is no end to moral improvement:.

Disquiet in philosophy may be said to arise from looking at philosophy wrongly, seeing it wrong, namely as if it were divided into infinite longitudinal strips instead of into finite cross strips. This inversion in our conception produces the greatest difficulty.

So we try, as it were, to grasp the unlimited strips and complain that it cannot be done piecemeal. To be sure it cannot, if by a piece one means an infinite longitudinal strip. Bus service links much of the urban Fairbanks area, with most routes connecting at the downtown transit center. The company, which was owned first by Paul Greimann and later by Walt Conant, mainly linked downtown Fairbanks with the university campus and the military bases.

Commercial airlines connect Fairbanks to the rest of Alaska as well as the lower 48 and select international destinations via Fairbanks International Airport. Fairbanks is the smallest city in the United States to be served by transatlantic flights, as Condor operates direct flight to Frankfurt in the summer tourist season. After large-scale gold mining began north of Fairbanks, miners wanted to build a railroad from the steamboat docks on the Chena River to the mine sites in the hills north of the city.

The result was the Tanana Mines Railroad, which started operations in September , using what had been the first steam locomotive in the Yukon Territory. The railroad continued expanding until , when the first gold boom began to falter and the introduction of automobiles into Fairbanks took business away from the railroad. Harding hammered in the ceremonial final spike in In May , the Alaska Railroad opened a new terminal northwest of downtown, and that terminal is in operation today. The majority of its business through Fairbanks is freight.

In Fairbanks ranks as the third most dangerous U. Compared to communities of similar population, Fairbanks' crime rate violent and property crimes combined is higher than Alaska's average, which in turn is higher than the U. The city of Fairbanks and the greater Fairbanks area is home to a number of attractions and events, which draw visitors from outside of Alaska throughout the year. Summer tourist traffic primarily consists of cruise ship passengers who purchase package tours which include travel to Fairbanks.

Many of these tourists spend one or more nights at a local hotel and visit one or more attractions. Tourism the rest of the year is mostly concentrated around the winter season, centered upon the northern lights , ice carving and winter sports. In addition, other events draw visitors from within Alaska, mostly from the community's trading area throughout Interior Alaska and the North Slope.

Fairbanks is twinned with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Fairbanks disambiguation. City in Alaska, United States. History of Fairbanks, Alaska. Places adjacent to Fairbanks, Alaska. Media in Fairbanks, Alaska. This section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of mayors of Fairbanks, Alaska. Airport Way, eastbound left and westbound right , is the main east-west thoroughfare in Fairbanks.

Constructed in the early and mids, it links the main gate of Fort Wainwright with the main terminal of Fairbanks International Airport. The Alaska Railroad provides regular freight and passenger service between Fairbanks and Southcentral Alaska towns. Shown on the left is the railroad's Fairbanks depot, off the Johansen Expressway on the northern edge of the railroad yards.

It opened in , replacing the depot in downtown Fairbanks right which opened in This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The districts of Bishop and Wool contain a small portion of city limits which Fairbanks annexed after that census was completed, and which contains zero resident population.

United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 22, Retrieved June 9, National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, The United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 10, Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: Accessed August 5, Fairbanks Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved January 28, Who's Who in Alaskan Politics. Papp and Josie A. Accessed September 30, Accessed October 4, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Accessed October 7, Accessed May 24, Climate Data for Selected Stations in Danish. Archived from the original PDF on April 27, Retrieved March 14, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved August 23, Archived from the original on June 9, Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved November 19, The Joy of Painting.

Retrieved October 19, Fairbanks City Council" , touchngo. Accessed August 1, Archived from the original on September 19, Retrieved September 30, Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original PDF on June 21, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved on June 16, Alaska Highway facts" , The Internet Archive.

Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved October 7, Davis remembers his awakening. The next day I gave those ladies enough money to keep going for another two years, which I think scared them, it was so out of the blue.

Then I asked them for a book environmental reading list for me, for my education. Then I started buying up land to see what I could do. An adult male black bear roams across perhaps a hundred square miles of land. North Florida already had some good-sized clusters of publicly owned longleaf—national forests, state forests, wildlife management areas and, in the western Panhandle, Eglin Air Force Base, a huge facility that back before World War II had itself been a national forest.

The problem was that 70 miles separated the first two protected longleaf forests—and it was another 95 miles to the third. Without any human intervention, here is a forest with tall, straight trees that are rather widely spaced, plenty of sunlight and lots of open, grassy meadows. Below the branches is empty space a hawk can glide through.

The available land was close to people, just a few miles inland from the sugar-white sands and high-rise condos of Gulf Coast beach towns. There was nothing, however, even remotely upscale about the land Davis had his eye on. It was dismal-looking rather than dazzling, a series of abandoned peanut farms and unproductive pulpwood forests with low asking prices.

Davis bought 51, acres of degraded farms and forests, a swath of land up to five miles wide that included barely 1, acres of longleaf pine in scattered patches.

Davis named his bedraggled purchase Nokuse Plantation. Wilson Biophilia Center at one edge of Nokuse, where thousands of fourth through seventh graders from six counties get free classes that let them hold real baby gopher tortoises and clamber and pose for pictures on a giant ant sculpture. Half a century ago, the vision expanded. In a hotspot where so many species are so densely crowded together, each rewilded acre had to be a stopping place, as well—a haven and a highway.

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Soldotna is a city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, in the U.S. state of the census the population was 4,, up from 3, in It is the seat of the Kenai Peninsula Borough.. Soldotna is located in the Southcentral portion of Alaska on the central-western portion of the Kenai city limits span 7 square miles .

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Prepare for the Multistate Essay Examination: learn about the test format, view the subject matter outline and test instructions, and access NCBE's study aids for the MEE. Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,, and the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at ,, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska .

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Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. The Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase was done in the year In this purchase the United States of America paid fifteen million dollars to get all the land west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains.