On March 18, , Grant signed his first law, pledging to redeem in gold the greenback currency issued during the Civil War, thus placing himself with the financial conservatives of the day. He appointed the first Civil Service Commission, but after initially backing its recommendations, he abandoned his support for the group when faced with congressional intransigence.
Grant was more persistent but equally unsuccessful when the Senate narrowly rejected a treaty of annexation with the Dominican Republic which Grant had been persuaded would be of strategic importance to the building of a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Grant easily won reelection in , defeating Horace Greeley , the editor of the New York Tribune and the candidate for the coalition formed by Democrats and Liberal Republicans, by nearly , votes in the popular election and capturing of electoral votes.
Belknap, who was impeached on charges of accepting bribes; because he was no longer a government official, Belknap escaped conviction. Scandals have become the best-remembered feature of the Grant administration, obscuring its more positive aspects. Grant supported both amnesty for Confederate leaders and civil rights for former slaves. He worked for ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment and went to Capitol Hill to win passage of the Ku Klux Klan Act of , although he was largely ineffective in enforcing the civil rights laws and other tenets of Reconstruction.
His veto of a bill to increase the amount of legal tender diminished the currency crisis during the next quarter century, and he received praise two years later for his graceful handling of the controversial election of , when both Republican Rutherford B.
Hayes and Democrat Samuel Jones Tilden claimed election to the presidency. After leaving office, Ulysses and Julia Grant set forth on a round-the-world trip in May In Germany they were greeted by Otto von Bismarck ; and in Japan they shook hands with the emperor.
Americans were delighted with these reports from overseas. The Grants themselves were left pondering their good fortune. In Grant found that a faction of the Republican Party was eager to nominate him for a third term.
Although he did nothing to encourage support, he received more than votes in each of the 36 ballots of the convention, which finally nominated James A. Grant put his capital at the disposal of the firm and encouraged others to follow. In the firm collapsed, swindled by Ferdinand Ward. In Grant began to write reminiscences of his campaigns for the Century Magazine and found this work so congenial that he began his memoirs.
Despite excruciating throat pain, later diagnosed as cancer, he signed a contract with his friend Mark Twain to publish the memoirs and resolved grimly to complete them before he died. Translating Thought into Action: In , on the 75th anniversary of his birth, his remains were removed to a magnificent neoclassical granite tomb at Riverside Drive on Morningside Heights in Manhattan. The project, supervised by the Grant Monument Association, was paid for by almost , contributions.
A million people turned out for the dedication proceedings, with Pres. William McKinley among the dignitaries in attendance. Julia Grant, who lived until , was interred beside her husband, as they had planned. Grant completed his memoirs shortly before his death. Written with modesty and restraint, exhibiting equanimity , candour, and a surprisingly good sense of humour, they retain high rank among military autobiographies.
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Hamilton Fish from March 17, William Tecumseh Sherman from September 11, Benjamin Helm Bristow from June 4, At their second meeting on May 8, Red Cloud informed Grant that Whites were trespassing on Native American lands and that his people needed food and clothing.
Out of concern for Native Americans, Grant ordered all Generals in the West to "keep intruders off by military force if necessary". To prevent Native American hostilities and wars, Grant lobbied for and signed the Indians Appropriations Act of — This act ended the governmental policy of treating tribes as independent sovereign nations.
Native Americans would be treated as individuals or wards of the state and Indian policies would be legislated by Congressional statutes. Historians have debated issues of "paternalism" and "colonialism" but have glossed over the significance of contingencies, inconsistencies, and political competition involved in forging a substantive federal policy, according to scholar David Sim He examined the peace policy, emphasizing incoherence in its formulation and implementation.
While the Grant administration focused on well-meaning but limited goals of placing "good men" in positions of influence and convincing native peoples of their fundamental dependency on the US government, attempts to create a new departure in federal-native relations were characterized by conflict and disagreement.
According to Sim, The muddled creation of what has become known as the peace policy thus tells much about the varied and divergent attitudes Americans had toward the consolidation of their empire in the West following the Civil War.
Grant appointed volunteer members who were "eminent for their intelligence and philanthropy"; a previous commission had been set up under the Andrew Johnson Administration in Baker killed tribal members, mostly women and children, Grant was determined to divide Native American post appointments "up among the religious churches"; by , 73 Indian agencies were divided among religious denominations.
In , the implementation of the policy involved the allotting of Indian reservations to religious organizations as exclusive religious domains. Of the 73 agencies assigned, the Methodists received fourteen; the Orthodox Friends ten; the Presbyterians nine; the Episcopalians eight; the Roman Catholics seven; the Hicksite Friends six; the Baptists five; the Dutch Reformed five; the Congregationalists three; Christians two; Unitarians two; American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions one; and Lutherans one.
The distribution caused immediate dissatisfaction among many groups who claimed that they had been slighted or overlooked. The selection criteria were vague and some critics saw the Peace Policy as violating Native American freedom of religion.
Among the Roman Catholics, this dissatisfaction led to the establishment of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions in The Peace Policy remained in force until , when the government heeded the protests of religious organizations whose missionaries had been removed from reservations on which they had not been assigned. On taking office Grant's first move was signing the Act to Strengthen the Public Credit, which the Republican Congress had just passed.
It ensured that all public debts, particularly war bonds, would be paid only in gold rather than in greenbacks. On May 19, , Grant protected the wages of those working for the U. In , a law was passed that reduced the government working day to 8 hours; however, much of the law was later repealed that allowed day wages to also be reduced. To protect workers Grant signed an executive order that "no reduction shall be made in the wages" regardless of the reduction in hours for the government day workers.
Treasury Secretary George S. Boutwell reorganized and reformed the United States Treasury by discharging unnecessary employees, started sweeping changes in Bureau of Printing and Engraving to protect the currency from counterfeiters , and revitalized tax collections to hasten the collection of revenue. These changes soon led the Treasury to have a monthly surplus. The New York Tribune wanted the government to buy more bonds and greenbacks and the New York Times praised the Grant administration's debt policy.
The cost of collecting taxes fell to 3. Grant reduced the number of employees working in the government by 2, persons from 6, on March 1, , to 3, on December 1, In a rare case of preemptive reform during the Grant Administration, Brevet Major General Alfred Pleasonton was dismissed for being unqualified to hold the position of Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Treasury Secretary George Boutwell promptly stopped the refund and personally informed Grant that Pleasonton was incompetent to hold office.
Refusing to resign on Boutwell's request, Pleasonton protested openly before Congress. Grant removed Pleasonton before any potential scandal broke out. The foreign-policy of the Administration was generally successful, except for the attempt to annex Santo Domingo. The annexation of Santo Domingo was Grant's "not unrealistic" effort to relieve the plight of blacks in the South during Reconstruction and was a first step to end slavery in Cuba and Brazil.
Issues regarding the Canadian boundary were easily settled. The achievements were the work of Secretary Hamilton Fish , who was a spokesman for caution and stability. A poll of historians has stated that Secretary Fish was one of the greatest Secretaries of States in United States history.
Hayes Cabinet until March 12, In , Grant proposed to annex the independent largely black nation of the Dominican Republic , then known as Santo Domingo. Previously in , President Andrew Johnson had attempted to annex the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo, but the House of Representatives defeated two resolutions for the protection of the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo and for the annexation of the Dominican Republic.
In July Grant sent Orville E. On January 10, , the Santo Domingo treaty was submitted to the Senate for ratification. Despite his support of the annexation, Grant made the mistakes of not informing Congress of the treaty or encouraging national acceptance and enthusiasm. By providing a safe haven for the freedmen, he believed that the exodus of black labor would force Southern whites to realize the necessity of such a significant workforce and accept their civil rights.
Grant believed the island country would increase exports and lower the trade deficit. He hoped that U. Charles Sumner , recommended against treaty passage. Sumner, the leading spokesman for African American civil rights, believed that annexation would be enormously expensive and involve the U. On June 30, , the Santo Domingo annexation treaty failed to pass the Senate; 28 votes in favor of the treaty and 28 votes against. Hamilton Fish, was secretly giving information to Sen.
Sumner on state department negotiations. Grant was determined to keep the Dominican Republic treaty in the public debate, mentioning Dominican Republic annexation in his December State of the Union Address.
Grant was able to get Congress in January to create a special Commission to investigate the island. African American leaders were upset and the issue of Douglass not being invited to the White House dinner was brought up during the Presidential election by Horace Greeley.
Unable constitutionally to go directly after Sen. Morton of Indiana, giving in to Fish's demands that Cuba rebels be rejected, and moving his Southern patronage from the radical blacks and carpetbaggers who were allied with Sumner to more moderate Republicans. This set the stage of the Liberal Republican revolt of , when Sumner and his allies publicly denounced Grant and supported Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans.
The investigation had initially been called to settle a dispute between an American businessman Davis Hatch against the United States government. Hatch had claimed that the United States had failed to protect him from imprisonment. The majority Congressional report dismissed Hatch's claim and exonerated both Babcock and Ingalls.
The Hatch incident, however, kept certain Senators from being enthusiastic about ratifying the treaty. The Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, called by historians the Ten Years' War , gained wide sympathy in the U. Juntas based in New York raised money, and smuggled men and munitions to Cuba, while energetically spreading propaganda in American newspapers. The Grant administration turned a blind eye to this violation of American neutrality.
Fish, however, wanted stability and favored the Spanish government, without publicly challenging the popular anti-Spanish American viewpoint.
They reassured European governments that the U. Grant and Fish gave lip service to Cuban independence, called for an end to slavery in Cuba, and quietly opposed American military intervention.
Fish, worked diligently against popular pressure, and was able to keep Grant from officially recognizing Cuban independence because it would have endangered negotiations with Britain over the Alabama Claims. Grant and Fish did not succumb to popular pressures. Grant's message to Congress urged strict neutrality not to officially recognize the Cuban revolt, which eventually petered out. Historians have credited the Treaty of Washington for implementing International Arbitration to allow outside experts to settle disputes.
Grant's able Secretary of State Hamilton Fish had orchestrated many of the events leading up to the treaty. Previously, Secretary of State William H. These damages were collectively known as the Alabama Claims. These ships had inflicted tremendous damage to U. Washington wanted the British to pay heavy damages, perhaps including turning over Canada. In April , the U. Senate overwhelmingly rejected a proposed treaty which paid too little and contained no admission of British guilt for prolonging the war.
Senator Charles Sumner spoke up before Congress; publicly denounced Queen Victoria ; demanded a huge reparation; and opened the possibility of Canada ceded to the United States as payment. The speech angered the British government, and talks had to be put off until matters cooled down. A joint high commission was created on February 9, , in Washington, consisting of representatives from both Britain and the United States.
The commission created a treaty where an international Tribunal would settle the damage amounts; the British admitted regret, not fault, over the destructive actions of the Confederate war cruisers. Grant approved and signed the treaty on May 8, ; the Senate ratified the Treaty of Washington on May 24, The Tribunal met in Geneva, Switzerland. The panel of five international arbitrators included Charles Francis Adams , who was counseled by William M. Evarts , Caleb Cushing , and Morrison R.
A primary role of the United States Navy in the 19th century was to protect American commercial interests and open trade to Eastern markets, including Japan and China. Korea had excluded all foreign trade and, the U. The long-term goal for the Grant Administration was to open Korea to Western markets in the same way Commodore Matthew Perry had opened Japan in by a Naval display of military force. The fleet included the Colorado , one of the largest ships in the Navy with 47 guns, 47 officers, and a man crew.
While waiting for senior Korean officials to negotiate, Rogers sent ships out to make soundings of the Salee River for navigational purposes. The American fleet was fired upon by a Korean fort, but there was little damage.
Rogers gave the Korean government ten days to apologize or begin talks, but the Royal Court kept silent. After ten days passed, on June 10, Rogers began a series of amphibious assaults that destroyed 5 Korean forts. These military engagements were known as the Battle of Ganghwa. Several hundred Korean soldiers and three Americans were killed. Korea still refused to negotiate, and the American fleet sailed away. The Koreans refer to this U. Grant defended Rogers in his third annual message to Congress in December After a change in regimes in Seoul, in , the U.
Organized exploration of the upper Yellowstone River began in fall when the Cook—Folsom—Peterson Expedition made a month-long journey up the Yellowstone River and into the geyser basins. In , the somewhat more official Washburn—Langford—Doane Expedition explored the same regions of the upper Yellowstone and geyser basins, naming Old Faithful and many other park features. Langford brought increased public awareness to the natural wonders of the region.
The expedition party was composed of 36 civilians, mostly scientists, and two military escorts. Hayden's published reports, magazine articles, along with paintings by Moran and photographs by Jackson convinced Congress to preserve the natural wonders of the upper Yellowstone.
Clagett of the Montana Territory , for the establishment of a park at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Hayden's influence on Congress is readily apparent when examining the detailed information contained in the report of the House Committee on Public Lands: The bill was approved by a comfortable margin in the Senate on January 30, , and by the House on February It established the Yellowstone region as the nation's first national park, made possible by three years of exploration by Cook-Folsom-Peterson , Washburn-Langford-Doane , and Hayden The Yellowstone Act prohibited fish and game, including buffalo, from "wanton destruction" within the confines of the park.
However, Congress did not appropriate funds or legislation for the enforcement against poaching; as a result, Secretary Delano could not hire people to aid tourists or protect Yellowstone from encroachment.
As the Indian wars ended, Congress appropriated money and enforcement legislation in , signed into law by President Grover Cleveland , that protected and preserved buffalo and other wildlife in Yellowstone. This was the first law in U. In , around two thousand white buffalo hunters working between Kansas, and Arkansas were killing buffalo for their hides by the many thousands. The demand was for boots for European armies, or machine belts attached to steam engines.
Acres of land were dedicated solely for drying the hides of the slaughtered buffalo. Native Americans protested at the "wanton destruction" of their food supply. Between in , the buffalo herd south of the Platte River yielded 4.
Taking advice from Secretary Delano, Grant chose to pocket-veto the bill, believing that the demise of the buffalo would reduce Indian wars and force tribes to stay on their respected reservations and to adopt an agricultural lifestyle rather than roaming the plains and hunting buffalo. With the buffalo food supply lowered, Native Americans were forced to stay on reservations. In September , financial manipulators Jay Gould and Jim Fisk set up an elaborate scam to corner the gold market through buying up all the gold at the same time to drive up the price.
The plan was to keep the Government from selling gold, thus driving its price. Grant and Secretary of Treasury George S. Gould and Fisk were thwarted, and the price of gold dropped. The effects of releasing the gold by Boutwell were disastrous. Stock prices plunged and food prices dropped, devastating farmers for years. The reform of the spoils system of political patronage entered the national agenda under the Grant Presidency, that would take on the fervor of a religious revival. Cox and Secretary of Treasury George S.
Boutwell put in place examinations in their respected departments advocated by reformers. Historian John Simon says his efforts at civil service reform were honest, but that they were met with criticism from all sides and were a failure. Grant was the first president to recommend a professional civil service. He pushed the initial legislation through Congress, and appointed the members for the first United States Civil Service Commission.
The temporary Commission recommended administering competitive exams and issuing regulations on the hiring and promotion of government employees. Grant ordered their recommendations in effect in ; having lasted for two years until December At the New York Custom House, a port that took in hundreds of millions of dollars a year in revenue, applicants for an entry position now had to pass a written civil service examination.
Arthur who was appointed by Grant as New York Custom Collector stated that the examinations excluded and deterred unfit persons from getting employment positions. Historians have traditionally been divided whether patronage , meaning appointments made without a merit system, should be labeled corruption. The movement for Civil Service reform reflected two distinct objectives: Although many reformers after the Election of looked to Grant to ram Civil Service legislation through Congress, he refused, saying:.
Grant used patronage to build his party and help his friends. He protected those whom he thought were the victims of injustice or attacks by his enemies, even if they were guilty. In the early s during the Grant Administration, lucrative postal route contracts were given to local contractors on the Pacific Coast and Southern regions of the United States.
These were known as Star Routes because an asterisk was given on official Post Office documents. These remote routes were hundreds of miles long and went to the most rural parts of the United States by horse and buggy.
In obtaining these highly prized postal contracts, an intricate ring of bribery and straw bidding was set up in the Postal Contract office; the ring consisted of contractors, postal clerks, and various intermediary brokers.
Straw bidding was at its highest practice while John Creswell , Grant's appointment, was Postmaster-General. An federal investigation into the matter exonerated Creswell, but he was censured by the minority House report. In , another congressional investigation under a Democratic House shut down the postal ring for a few years. Prior to the Presidential Election of two congressional and one Treasury Department investigations took place over corruption at the New York Custom House under Grant collector appointments Moses H.
Grinnell and Thomas Murphy. Private warehouses were taking imported goods from the docks and charging shippers storage fees. Grant's friend, George K.
Leet, was allegedly involved with exorbitant pricing for storing goods and splitting the profits. Arthur , implemented Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell 's reform to keep the goods protected on the docks rather than private storage.
Representatives also received a retroactive pay bonus for previous two years of service. This was done in secret and attached to a general appropriations bill.
Reforming newspapers quickly exposed the law and the bonus was repealed in January Grant missed an opportunity to veto the bill and to make a strong statement for good government. As his first term entered its final year, Grant remained popular throughout the nation despite the accusations of corruption that were swirling around his administration. When Republicans gathered for their national convention he was unanimously nominated for a second term. The parry platform advocated high tariffs and a continuation of Radical Reconstruction policies that supported five military districts in the Southern states.
During Grant's first term a significant number of Republicans had become completely disillusioned with the party. Weary of the scandals and opposed to several of Grant's policies, split from the party to form the Liberal Republican Party. At the party's only national convention, held in May New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley was nominated for president, and Benjamin Gratz Brown was nominated for vice president.
They advocated civil service reform, a low tariff, and granting amnesty to former Confederate soldiers.
They also wanted to end reconstruction and restore local self-government in the South. The Democrats, who at this time had no strong candidate choice of their own, saw an opportunity to consolidate the anti-Grant vote and jumped on the Greeley bandwagon, reluctantly adopting Greeley and Brown as their nominees.
While Grant, like incumbent presidents before him, did not campaign, an efficient party organization composed of thousands of patronage appointees, did so on his behalf. His campaign was plagued by misstatements and embarrassing moments. However, because of political infighting between Liberal Republicans and Democrats, and due to several campaign blunders, the physically ailing Greeley was no match for Grant, who won in a landslide.
Grant won of the Electoral College votes, and received The President's reelection victory also brought an overwhelming Republican majority into both houses of Congress. Heartbroken after a hard-fought political campaign, Greeley died a few weeks after the election. Out of respect for Greeley, Grant attended his funeral. The second inauguration of Ulysses Grant's Presidency was held on Tuesday, March 4, , commencing the second four-year term his presidency. Subsequently, the inaugural ball ended early when the food froze.
Wilson died 2 years, days into this term, and the office remained vacant for the balance of it. Departing from the White House, a parade escorted Grant down the newly paved Pennsylvania Avenue, which was all decorated with banners and flags, on to the swearing-in ceremony in front of the Capitol building. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase administered the presidential oath of office.
This was one of the coldest inaugurations in U. After the swearing-in ceremony the inaugural parade commenced down Pennsylvania. The Evening Star observed. The military units, in their fancy regalia, were the most noticeable. Altogether there were approximately 12, marchers who participated, including several units of African-American soldiers.
At the inaugural ball there were some 6, people in attendance. Great care was taken to ensure that Grant's inaugural ball would be in spacious quarters and would feature an elegant assortment of appetizers, food, and champagne.
A large temporary wooden building was constructed at Judiciary Square to accommodate the event. Grant arrived around Grant was vigorous in his enforcement of the 14th and 15th amendments and prosecuted thousands of persons who violated African American civil rights; he used military force to put down political insurrections in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
He used his full powers to weaken the Ku Klux Klan , reducing violence and intimidation in the South. Grant retaliated, firing men Sumner had recommended and having allies strip Sumner of his chairmanship of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sumner joined the Liberal Republican movement in to fight Grant's reelection.
Conservative resistance to Republican state governments grew after the elections. With the destruction of the Klan in , new secret paramilitary organizations arose in the Deep South. Their goals were to oust the Republicans, return Conservative whites to power, and use whatever illegal methods needed to achieve them. Being loyal to his veterans, Grant remained determined that African Americans would receive protection. Polygamy, Chinese prostitution, support of Jewish people, and secular education were also issues during Reconstruction.
After the November 4, , election, Louisiana was a split state. In a controversial election, two candidates were claiming victory as governor. Violence was used to intimidate black Republicans. Two months later each candidate was sworn in as governor on January 13, A federal judge ruled that Kellogg was the rightful winner of the election and ordered him and the Republican-based majority to be seated.
Grant ordered troops to enforce the court order and protect Kellogg. On March 4, Federal troops under a flag of truce and Kellogg's state militia defeated McEnry's fusionist party's insurrection. A dispute arose over who would be installed as judge and sheriff at the Colfax courthouse in Grant Parish.
Kellogg's two appointees had seized control of the Court House on March 25 with aid and protection of black state militia troops. Then on April 13, White League forces attacked the courthouse and massacred 50 black militiamen who had been captured. A total of blacks were killed trying to defend the Colfax courthouse for Governor Kellogg.
On April 21, Grant sent in the U. On May 22, Grant issued a new proclamation to restore order in Louisiana. On May 31, McEnry finally told his followers to obey "peremptory orders" of the President. The orders brought a brief peace to New Orleans and most of Louisiana, except, ironically, Grant Parish. In the fall of , the Republican party split in Arkansas and ran two candidates for governor, Elisha Baxter and Joseph Brooks. Massive fraud characterized the election, but Baxter was declared the winner and took office.
Brooks never gave up; finally, in , a local judge ruled Brooks was entitled to the office and swore him in. Both sides mobilized militia units, and rioting and fighting bloodied the streets. Speculation swirled as to who President Grant would side with — either Baxter or Brooks.
Grant delayed, requesting a joint session of the Arkansas government to figure out peacefully who would be the Governor, but Baxter refused to participate. On May 15, , Grant issued a Proclamation that Baxter was the legitimate Governor of Arkansas, and hostilities ceased. A few months later in early , Grant announced that Brooks had been legitimately elected back in Grant did not send in troops, and Brooks never regained office.
Grant's legalistic approach Did resolve the conflict peacefully, but it left the Republican Party in Arkansas in total disarray, and further discredited grants reputation. In August , the Vicksburg city government elected White reform party candidates consisting of Republicans and Democrats. They promised to lower city spending and taxes. Despite such intentions, the reform movement turned racist when the new White city officials went after the county government, which had a majority of African Americans.
Crosby sought help from Republican Governor Adelbert Ames to regain his position as sheriff. Governor Ames told him to take other African Americans and use force to retain his lawful position. At that time Vicksburg had a population of 12,, more than half of whom were African American.
He had said that the Whites were, "ruffians, barbarians, and political banditti ". The White militia retained control of the County Court House and jail. On December 21, Grant issued a Presidential Proclamation for the people in Vicksburg to stop fighting. General Philip Sheridan , based in Louisiana for this regional territory, dispatched federal troops, who reinstated Crosby as sheriff and restored the peace. When questioned about the matter, Governor Ames denied that he had told Crosby to use African-American militia.
On June 7, , Crosby was shot to death by a white deputy while drinking in a bar. The origins of the shooting remained a mystery. Kellogg was forced to flee. Former Confederate General James A. Longstreet , with 3, African American militia and Metropolitan police, made a counterattack on the 8, White League troops.
Consisting of former Confederate soldiers, the experienced White League troops routed Longstreet's army. On September 17, Grant sent in Federal troops, and they restored the government back to Kellogg.
During the following controversial election in November, passions rose high, and violence mixed with fraud were rampant; the state of affairs in New Orleans was becoming out of control.
The results were that 53 Republicans and 53 Democrats were elected with 5 remaining seats to be decided by the legislature. Grant had been careful to watch the elections and secretly sent Phil Sheridan in to keep law and order in the state. Sheridan had arrived in New Orleans a few days before the January 4, , legislature opening meeting.
At the convention the Democrats again with military force took control of the state building out of Republican hands. However, Governor Kellogg then requested that Trobriand reseat the Republicans. Trobriand returned to the Statehouse and used bayonets to force the Democrats out of the building.
The Republicans then organized their own house with their own speakers all being protected by the Federal Army. Sheridan, who had annexed the Department of the Gulf to his command at 9: Throughout his presidency, Grant was continually concerned with the civil rights of all Americans, "irrespective of nationality, color, or religion. This was done particularly to protect African Americans who were discriminated across United States.
The bill was also passed in honor of Senator Charles Sumner who had previously attempted to pass a civil rights bill in Treat the Negro as a citizen and a voter, as he is and must remain Then we shall have no complaint of sectional interference.
During the election year of , South Carolina was in a state of rebellion against Republican governor Daniel H. Conservatives were determined to win the election for ex-Confederate Wade Hampton through violence and intimidation. The Republicans went on to nominate Chamberlain for a second term. Hampton supporters, donning red shirts, disrupted Republican meetings with gun shootings and yelling. Tensions became violent on July 8, , when five African Americans were murdered at Hamburg.
The rifle clubs, wearing their Red Shirts , were better armed than the blacks. South Carolina was ruled more by "mobocracy and bloodshed" than by Chamberlain's government. Black militia fought back in Charleston on September 6, , in what was known as the "King Street riot". The white militia assumed defensive positions out of concern over possible intervention from federal troops. Then, on September 19, the Red Shirts took offensive action by openly killing between 30 and 50 African Americans outside Ellenton.
During the massacre, state representative Simon Coker was killed. On October 7, Governor Chamberlain declared martial law and told all the "rifle club" members to put down their weapons.
In the meantime, Wade Hampton never ceased to remind Chamberlain that he did not rule South Carolina. Out of desperation, Chamberlain wrote to Grant and asked for federal intervention. Blacks and whites both opened fire; six whites and one black were killed. Grant, upset over the Ellenton and Cainhoy riots, finally declared a Presidential Proclamation on October 17, and ordered all persons, within 3 days, to cease their lawless activities and disperse to their homes.
A total of 1, federal infantrymen were sent into South Carolina, and the violence stopped; election day was quiet. Both Hampton and Chamberlain claimed victory, and for a while both acted as governor; Hampton took the office in after President Rutherford B. Hayes withdrew federal troops and after Chamberlain left the state.
In October , Grant traveled to Utah and was surprised that the Mormons treated him kindly. He told Utah territorial governor, George W. Emery , that he had been deceived concerning the Mormons. Grant advocated that a second law, stronger than the Morrill Act, be passed to "punish so flagrant a crime against decency and morality. Grant also denounced the immigration of Chinese women into the United States for the purposes of prostitution , saying that it was "no less an evil" than polygamy.
Grant believed strongly in the separation of church and state and championed complete secularization in public schools. In a September speech, Grant advocated "security of free thought, free speech, and free press, pure morals, unfettered religious sentiments, and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irrespective of nationality, color, or religion. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private schools Keep the church and the state forever separate.
Grant very much regretted his wartime order expelling Jewish traders. The Jewish community was angry with Grant and feared for their status in America even though President Lincoln forced Grant to rescind the order immediately. Grant publicly apologized for it in When he became president in , he set out to make amends. Historian Jonathan Sarna argues:. Eager to prove that he was above prejudice, Grant appointed more Jews to public office than had any of his predecessors and, in the name of human rights, he extended unprecedented support to persecuted Jews in Russia and Romania.
Time and again, partly as a result of this enlarged vision of what it meant to be an American and partly in order to live down General Orders No. Through his appointments and policies, Grant rejected calls for a 'Christian nation' and embraced Jews as insiders in America, part of 'we the people. Under Grant's peace policy, wars between settlers, the federal army, and the American Indians had been decreasing from per year in to a low of 15 per year in In January , Grant's Native American peace policy was challenged.
Two weeks after Grant was elected for a second term, fighting broke out between the Modocs and settlers near the California-Oregon border. The Modocs, led by Captain Jack , killed 18 white settlers and then found a strong defensive position. Grant ordered General Sherman not to attack the Indians but settle matters peacefully with a commission.
Reverend Eleazar Thomas, a Methodist minister, was also killed. Meacham , an Indian Agent, was severely wounded. The murders shocked the nation, and Sherman wired to have the Modocs exterminated. This episode and the Great Sioux War undermined public confidence in Grant's peace policy, according to historian Robert M. Edward Canby and the Modoc tribal leaders, there were more Indians in the tent then had been agreed upon.
As the Indians grew more hostile, Captain Jack, said "I talk no more. Gen Canby was the highest-ranking officer to be killed during the Indian Wars that took place from to Alfred Meacham, who survived the massacre, defended the Modocs who were put on trial. In , war erupted on the southern Plains when Quanah Parker , leader of the Comanche , led tribal warriors and attacked the buffalo hunter supply base on the Canadian River, at Adobe Walls, Texas. The Army under General Phil Sheridan launched a military campaign, and, with few casualties on either side, forced the Indians back to their reservations by destroying their horses and winter food supplies.
Grant, who agreed to the Army plan advocated by Generals William T. Sherman and Phil Sheridan, imprisoned 74 insurgents in Florida. In gold had been discovered in the Black Hills in the Dakota Territory. White speculators and settlers rushed in droves seeking riches mining gold on land reserved for the Sioux tribe by the Treaty of Fort Laramie of The offer was declined.
On November 3, at a White House meeting, Phil Sheridan told the President that the Army was overstretched and could not defend the Sioux tribe from the settlers; Grant ordered Sheridan to round up the Sioux and put them on the reservation.
Sheridan used a strategy of convergence, using Army columns to force the Sioux onto the reservation. On June 25, , one of these columns, led by Colonel George A. Approximately federal soldiers and civilians were killed compared to 40 Indians.
Sheridan avenged Custer, pacified the northern Plains, and put the defeated Sioux on the reservation. On August 28, a seven-man committee, appointed by Grant, gave additional harsh stipulations for the Sioux in order to receive government assistance. Halfbreeds and "squaw men" A white man with an Indian wife were banished from the Sioux reservation. To receive the government rations, the Indians had to work the land.
Reluctantly, on September 20, the Indian leaders, whose people were starving, agreed to the committee's demands and signed the agreement. The rapidly accelerated industrial growth in post-Civil War America and throughout the world crashed with the Panic of Many banks overextended their loans and went bankrupt as a result, causing a general panic throughout the nation.
In an attempt to put capital into a stringent monetary economy, Secretary of Treasury William A. Many argued that Richardson's monetary policies were not enough and some argued were illegal. Eastern bankers vigorously lobbied Grant to veto the bill because of their reliance on bonds and foreign investors who did business in gold. Grant's cabinet was bitterly divided over this issue while conservative Secretary of State Hamilton Fish threatened to resign if Grant signed the bill.
On April 22, , after evaluating his own reasons for wanting to sign the bill, Grant unexpectedly vetoed the bill against the popular election strategy of the Republican Party because he believed it would destroy the nation's credit. On January 14, , Grant signed the Resumption of Specie Act, and he could not have been happier; he wrote a note to Congress congratulating members on the passage of the act. This act provided that paper money in circulation would be exchanged for gold specie and silver coins and would be effective January 1, The act also implemented that gradual steps would be taken to reduce the number of greenbacks in circulation.
Its effect was to stabilize the currency and make the consumers money as "good as gold". In an age without a Federal Reserve system to control inflation, this act stabilized the economy. Grant considered it the hallmark of his administration. Historians credit Secretary of State Hamilton Fish with a highly effective foreign policy.
Ronald Cedric White says of Grant, "everyone agreed he chose well when he appointed Hamilton Fish secretary of state. On October 31, , a steamer Virginius , flying the American flag carrying war materials and men to aid the Cuban insurrection in violation of American and Spanish law was intercepted and taken to Cuba. After a hasty trial, the local Spanish officials executed 53 would-be insurgents, eight of whom were United States citizens; orders from Madrid to delay the executions arrived too late.
War scares erupted in both the U. Secretary of State Fish kept a cool demeanor in the crisis, and through investigation discovered there was a question over whether the Virginius ship had the right to bear the United States flag.
The Spanish Republic's President Emilio Castelar expressed profound regret for the tragedy and was willing to make reparations through arbitration. Fish negotiated reparations with the Spanish minister Senor Poly y Bernabe. With Grant's approval, Spain was to surrender Virginius , pay an indemnity to the surviving families of the Americans executed, and salute the American flag; the episode ended quietly. James Milton Turner , the first African American ambassador from the United States, requested that a warship be sent to protect American property in Liberia, a former American colony.
After Alaska arrived, Turner negotiated the incorporation of Grebo people into Liberian society and the ousting of foreign traders from Liberia. The Panic of was a worldwide depression that started when the stock market in Vienna, Austria crashed in June that year.
Unsettling markets soon spread to Berlin and throughout Europe. The causes of the panic in the United States included the destruction of credit from over-speculation in the stock markets and railroad industry. Eight years of unprecedented growth after the Civil War had brought thousands of miles of railroad construction, thousands of industrial factories, and a strong stock market; the South experienced a boom in agriculture.
A strict monetary policy under Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell , during the height of the railroad speculations, contributed to unsettled markets. Boutwell created monetary stringency by selling more gold then he bought bonds. The Coinage Act of made gold the de facto currency metal over silver. On September 20, , the Grant Administration finally responded. These actions did help curb the effects of the general panic by allowing more currency into the commercial banks and hence allowing more money to be lent and spent.
Historians have blamed the Grant administration for not responding to the crisis promptly and for not taking adequate measures to reduce the negative effects of the general panic. The monetary policies of both Secretary Boutwell and Richardson were inconsistent from to The government's ultimate failure was in not reestablishing confidence in the businesses that had been the source of distrust.
The Panic of eventually ran its course despite all the limited efforts from the government. Grant's "cronyism", as Smith calls it, was apparent when he overruled Army experts to help a wartime friend, engineer, James B. Eads was building a major railroad bridge across the Mississippi at St. Louis that had been authorized by Congress in and was nearing completion in However, the Army Corps of Engineers chief of engineers, agreeing with steamboat interests, ordered Eads to build a canal around the bridge because the bridge would be "a serious obstacle to navigation.
In the off-year Congressional elections of , the Democrats scored a major landslide. A deep economic depression dispirited the Republicans and many other problems finally caught up with them. It was an important turning point, as the Democrats gained control of the House.
It signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction , which Democrats opposed.
Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, – July 23, ) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
Late in the administration of Andrew Johnson, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant quarreled with the President and aligned himself with the Radical Republicans. He was, as the symbol of Union victory during the Civil War, their logical candidate for President in
Dec 11, · Ulysses Grant () commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War () and served as the 18th U.S. president from to An Ohio native, Grant graduated from West Point and fought in the Mexican-American War (). Civil War Ulysses S Grant was the commander of Union forces during the Civil War. Learn more about the war, its battles, and more with this overview. Top 10 Presidential Scandals Ulysses S Grant was president during three of these top ten presidential scandals that occurred throughout the years.
Learn term:ulysses s. grant = 15th amendment with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of term:ulysses s. grant = 15th amendment flashcards on Quizlet. Watch video · President Ulysses S. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant on April, 27, , in Point Pleasant, Ohio, near the mouth of the Big Indian Creek at the Ohio River. His famous moniker, "U.S. Grant.