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Meaning and Scope of Marketing Research

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❶The information should be necessary and relevant. This method is adopted by research workers, private individuals, non-official agencies and State and Central Governments.


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The relationship feels like we are all intellectual equals simply doing our best work together. But with regard to the scope of marketing research, there are various factors which determine the extent to which you carry out research.

When initiating a marketing research, there are objectives set. These are the guiding factors and so, they play a major role in spelling out the scope of marketing research. Depending on the objectives, the research can either be shallow or detailed. If more detailed data is needed, then the scope of marketing research is higher and vice versa.

This factor is also responsible for the determination of other factors like the methodology of the research and the nature of the research. Also, if the objectives for the research are complex, it will require the stakes for the research to also be higher. The nature of the research dictates the methodology which then impacts on the scope of marketing research. For example, some marketing researches will require the application of a research methodology that is long term and complex.

For example, a market research to establish the effect of a certain cereal in the market requires a long term study. How many persons live in your house? Opinion survey is designed to gather expressions of personal opinions, to record evaluations of different things or to report thinking on particular matters. How do you feel about this new cordless electric shaver? In the interpretative survey the respondent acts as an interpreter as well as a reporter.

Interpretative data are gathered by using such questions as: What feature of the new pack of this product appeals to you most? The survey can also be conducted in two ways: Under census survey, the marketer conducts surveys covering the entire market.

The data are collected from each and every person in the market. But under sampling survey, only a part of the whole group will be studied. We may study a sample drawn from the large group and if the sample is adequately representative of the group, we should be able to arrive at valid conclusions. As such, sampling survey is widely accepted. Under this method, the enumerator makes personal contacts with the informant and obtains more information than under any other method.

The researcher can clarify the questions, if they are not understood by the informant. This is of two types:. Under this method, the data are collected by the investigator personally. The investigator must be a keen observer, tactful and courteous in behaviour. He asks or cross-examines the informant and collects necessary information, which is original in character.

When the informant is reluctant to supply information, the method of indirect oral investigation can be followed. Under this method the investigator approaches witnesses or third parties, who are in touch with the informant. The enumerator interviews the people, who are directly or indirectly connected with the problem under study. For instance, we are asked to collect information relating to the gambling or drinking habits of people.

In such cases, the informants will be reluctant to supply information relating to their own socially, evil habits. On such occasions, we may approach the dealer of liquor shops, friends, neighbours etc. Generally this method is employed by different enquiry committees and commissions. The police department generally adopts this method to get clues of thefts, riots, murders etc.

The police interrogate third parties who possess knowledge about the happenings under study. This system is more suitable, where the area to be studied is large.

It is adopted when direct information cannot be obtained. This system is generally adopted by governments. As the information is collected from different parties, a true account can be expected and all aspects of the problem can be ascertained.

The researcher prepares a list of questions in the form of a questionnaire and either hand over the questionnaire to the informant, who fills the questionnaire or asks questions from the questionnaire and notes down the replies himself.

In this method, a questionnaire consisting of a list of questions pertaining to the survey is prepared. There are blank spaces for answers. This questionnaire is sent to the respondents, who are expected to write the answers in the blank spaces. A covering letter is also sent along with the questionnaire, requesting the respondents to extend their full co-operation by giving the correct replies and returning the questionnaire duly filled in time.

To get quick and better response, the return postage expense is borne by the investigator, by sending a self-addressed and stamped envelope. This method is adopted by research workers, private individuals, non-official agencies and State and Central Governments. Error in the investigation is small because information is obtained directly from respondents. In this method, there is no direct contact between the investigator and the respondent. Therefore we cannot be sure about the accuracy and reliability of the data.

This method is suitable only for literate people. In many countries, there are illiterates who cannot understand and reply the questionnaire. The questionnaire is the medium of communication between the investigator and the respondent.

The success of an investigation depends on the framing of the questionnaire. As such, utmost care and caution are essential for designing or drafting the questionnaire. In addition, it requires skill, wisdom, efficiency and experience. There are no hard and fast rules to be followed but the following general points may be borne in mind: This type of survey is conducted over the telephone and resembles personal interview.

Where the respondents are scattered in distant areas and where the telephone communication is advanced, the researcher can contact the informant to obtain information. Only a part of the whole group population will be studied in the case of sample enquiry.

Further to arrive at valid conclusions, it may not be necessary to enumerate all or nearly all of a population. We may study a sample drawn from the large population and, if that sample is adequately representative of the population, we should be able to arrive at valid conclusions.

We can study the characteristics of the population or universe from the sampling. A study of a sample will give a correct idea of the universe or population.

A truck load of product is accepted or rejected on the evidence gained from testing only a few items. Samples are devices for learning about large masses by observing a few individuals. There are many methods of sampling. The choice of method will be determined on the purpose of sampling. Probability samples result from a process of random selection, whereby each member of a universe has a known chance of being selected for the sample.

Non-probability samples result from a process in which judgement of bias enters into the selection of members of a universe included in the sample. A random sample is one where each item in the universe has an equal chance of known opportunity of being selected.

This is a technique in which sample is so drawn that each and every unit in the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. Several methods have been adopted for random selection of the sample. This is the most popular and simplest method. In this method, all the items of the universe are numbered on separate slips of paper of the same size, shape and colour. They are folded and mixed up in a drum or container.

A blindfold selection is made. The required number of slips are selected for the desired sample size. The selection of items thus depends on chance. As the lottery method cannot be used, when the population is infinite, the alternative is that of using the table of random numbers.

When the population is heterogeneous or of different segments or strata with respect to the variable or characteristic under study, then it is stratified.

First the population is divided into a number of sub-groups or strata. Each stratum is homogeneous. A sample is drawn from each stratum at random. There are two types of stratified random sampling.

They are proportional and non-proportional. In the proportional sampling, equal and proportionate representation is given to sub-groups or strata. If the number of items is large in the population, the same will have a higher size and vice versa. In disproportionate or non-proportionate sample, equal representation is given to all sub-strata, regardless of their existence in the population. To divide the population into homogeneous strata, it requires more money, time and statistical experience which is a difficult one.

If proper stratification is not done, the sample will have an effect of bias. If different strata of population overlap, such sample will not be representative one. It is also known as quasi-random sampling. A systematic sample is selected at random sampling. When a complete list of the population is available, this method is used.

We arrange the items in numerical, alphabetical, geographical or any other order. If we want to select a sample of 15 students from students, under this method Kth item is picked up from the sample frame and k is the sample interval.

Every 10th student will be taken as sample i. OR 6th, 16th, 26th and so on. It is also called as sampling stages. It refers to a sampling procedure, which is carried out in several stages.

The whole population is divided into sampling units, and these units are again divided into sub-units. This process will continue till we reach the last number.

For instance, we want to take 5, students from Madhya Pradesh. We must take universities at the first stage, then the number of colleges at the second stage, selection of students from the colleges at the third stage etc.

It is helpful in large-scale survey where the preparation of list is difficult, time-consuming or expensive. It is valuable in under-developed countries, where no detailed and accurate framework is available. The investigator has the power to select or reject any item in an investigation. The choice of sample items depends on the judgement of the investigator. He has the vital role to play in collecting the information.

For example, if a sample of 5 students is to be selected from a B. Class of 50 students for analyzing the habit of picture seeing, the investigator would select 5 students, who according to his opinion are the representative of the class. It is very helpful to make public policies, decisions etc. The executives and public officials use this method for their urgent problem.

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Nature And Scope. Marketing research is the best way to establish the status of the market before you can initiate the marketing campaign. The benefits of marketing research are great and this brings the question; what the nature and scope of marketing is the best?

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Marketing Research: Nature and scope of Marketing Research! Nature and Scope of Marketing Research, Marketing Research as an aid to Marketing decision making, Research Designs, Exploratory Descriptive and Conclusive Marketing Research is defined as the systematic design, collection, analysis and.

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NATURE & SCOPE OF MARKETING RESEARCH Date: 23 / 01 / Presented by: Sagar Anand Roll No nature of marketing research Meaning: Marketing research is a systematic approach to solve marketing problems. The American marketing association defines marketing research “The systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about problems relating to marketing of goods and services.”.

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The mechanics of marketing research must be controlled so that the right facts are obtained in the answer to the correct problem. The control of fact-finding is the responsibility of the research director, who must correctly design the research and carefully supervise its execution to ensure it . What is marketing research Marketing research is the function that links, the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer Research comprises defining and redefining problems, Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions Collecting, organizing, and evaluating data Making deductions and reaching conclusions And at last carefully testing the.